About 12,000 years ago, human history begins to reveal the first attempts by people to control and adapt natural evolution to suit their own needs. It starts with the beginning of farming–the artificial breeding of animals and the intensive growing of particular plants, or crops, for food…Artificial selection allowed people to settle–to live permanently in one place–because all the food they needed could be cultivated in one spot. They started to live in villages all year round, to build the first houses, which then grew into town, which then grew into cities, which grew into states, and which, ultimately turned into civilizations. Quoted from "What on Earth Happened", page 111.
The above quote gives a brief explanation of how the first civilisations came to be.
The story of Noah and his descendants (in Genesis 10) being the ancestors of all humans in the Near and Middle East, with the Genesis writer’s complex genealogy is simply mythology in the face of all the evidence that is there for what really happened. However, the genealogy cannot simply be ignored either because it demonstrates that the people who devised the genealogy charts were capable of very high level thinking. Not only did they claim that they were descended from the same set of parents, but using complex thought processes, they worked out exactly which civilisation was descended from which of Noah’s three sons. To the extent that they included people far beyond their borders.
Noah had three sons, Ham, Shem, and Japheth. In the previous chapter, Ham had uncovered his father’s nakedness, which was used as an excuse to send him away to start the races of other people who his brothers’ descendants would slaughter in later stories.
The genealogy shows three individual lines, colour-coded for ease of reference.
The three sons of Noah:
Ham (and his son Canaan in particular):